Calculus is defined as yellowish or whitish deposition of minerals on the surface of the teeth. It is also called tartar. It occurs when on the teeth plaque is formed and the already exist plaque becomes hardened with the passage of time.
Plaque is a regularly formed on the teeth and it is colorless to yellow and sticky deposits on the teeth. Plaque is formed when we eat food the food combines with saliva in the mouth. As a result, it produces bacteria that collect between gums and teeth.
Plaque is formed by bacteria in the saliva, both bad and good bacteria are found but there are also some compounds in the saliva that initially help information of plaque.
Plaque is soft and it can be removed with the help of regular flossing and brushing but once the plaque becomes harder it formed calculus and it is difficult to remove it.
It is normally happens in the centerline of sulcus which is found along the line of gum and in between the subgingival of teeth which are composed of inorganic and organic components. It is normal that the build-up of Calculus Bridge teeth is loaded with bacteria, therefore, it is very necessary to remove it.
It normally happens if proper care of teeth was not done then calculus bridge maggots were produced in the mouth
Calculus Bridge Composition
The Calculus bridge is formed of both Organic and Inorganic compounds. Inorganic compounds i.e are minerals their proportion varies from 40% to 60% of the whole tartar, therefore minerals are the major compounds in tartars. The remaining percents are of organic compounds, From the organic compounds, about 75-85% are cellular compounds while about 15-25% is extracellular compounds.
- Bad breath
- Due to the deep penetration of calculus or tartar loss of tooth
- Yellowish or white hard deposits on teeth
- Receding gum line
- Tooth decay
- Chronically inflamed Gingiva
- Coffee or tea consumption
- Too much consumption of chocolates and sweets.
- Too much consumption of unhealthy diet.
- No care of teeth
- Precipitation of minerals that are present in plaque
Calculus Bridge Removal
There are two ways for the removal of Calculus Bridge but clinic method is commonly preferred
- At home
- At clinic
There are following ways for the removal of Calculus Bridge dental issues at home
- By Brushing
- By Flossing
- By Orange peels
The plaque that is formed after eating food is soft and it can be removed with the help of regular brushing a minimum 2 times a day by using the hard toothbrush.
Calculus build-up and plaque is easily is beneficially removed with the help of flossing. When you brush your teeth after brushing must floss your teeth for good results.
The peel of orange contains vitamin C which is helpful in fighting with the bacteria that are present in the teeth therefore for that take an orange peel and rub it on the teeth daily for 2-3 minutes and it is very beneficial in removing tartar.
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There are two common methods used for the removal of Calculus Bridge at the clinic
- The treatment is done by using the high-frequency vibrations which is the ultrasonic removal of tartar and the remaining deposits of calcium by crapping them off.
- The treatment method the removal of hard matter and minerals occurs by the use of hard objects.
CALCULUS BRIDGE BEFORE AND AFTER
Before the treatment of Calculus Bridge, the teeth were yellowish and full of hardened plaque which looks bad and after the treatment of Calculus Bridge the teeth look glowing and bright and the life of teeth is extended for more years than the Calculus affected teeth.
Accumulation of plaque causes the gingiva irritation and inflammation. It is known as Gingivitis. Whenever the gingiva becomes so irritated that there may be the loss of connective tissue fibers that attach to the teeth and bone that surrounds the tooth this condition is known as Periodontitis. Here it should be remembered that the calculus bridge is not the only cause for Periodontitis but we can say that the Calculus bridge is one of the common causes of Periodontitis. However, Periodontitis is referred to as Primary Aetiology.
Types of calculus bridge
Dental calculus is broadly classified into two major categories by the University of Adelaide.
- Supragingival calculus
- Subgingival calculus
It is a type of calculus bridge in which tartar is formed above the gum line.it can be seen with the naked eye on the surface of teeth and it is yellow or tan in color.
As the name indicates, it is the type of calculus in which plaque formation occurs on tooth root (below the gumline) generally between the gum and tooth. The calculus is brown or black in color and cannot be seen by the naked eye.
Consequences of calculus bridge formation
Once the calculus bridge has formed, it requires the services of the dental professional in order to remove it from the teeth and to avoid further complications. If left untreated plaque may lead to
- Cavities in which PH of the oral cavity is decreased by the plaque bacteria and damaged the tooth enamel.
- Gingivitis in which the inflammation of gums occurs due to plaque bacteria. Gingivitis may progress to periodontitis.
- Bad breathing occurs due to poor oral hygiene
To remove calculus from the surface of teeth and depending upon the condition, a dentist will recommend
- Teeth scaling
- Teeth polishing
The first step used to remove the calculus is to scrape off the hard tarter with the help of a scaler. during the scaling process, all tarter is manually removed by the dentist that has been deposited on the surface of teeth.
After scaling process teeth are polished to make their surface smooth and clean. polishing will also remove the rough surface of teeth that are more susceptible to calculus formation. A polishing paste is applied on the surface of teeth with the help of dental polisher. Rotating head of the polisher will rotate onto the entire surface of teeth to removes the plaque and polish the teeth.
Prevention of calculus bridge formation
Calculus or tartar formation can be avoided by the use of certain preventive measures that helps us to improve oral hygiene and to reduce the incidence of tartar formation. some of the precautions are as follows
- Daily rinse the oral cavity with ADA approved antiseptic mouthwash that contains cetylpyridinium, chlorhexidine, and various essential oils. These mouthwashes will help to avoid tartar formation by killing the bacteria.
- Daily brush the teeth twice a day, particularly before bedtime. Brushing the teeth for 2 minutes at a time will properly clean the oral cavity and prevent the tartar formation. especially designed soft bristles toothbrushes that clean all the hard to reach areas should be used.
- Certain types of electric-toothbrushes are also available that provide better protection against tartar formation as compared to manual models. However, these electric toothbrushes should be approved by the American Dental Association (ADA) that have undergone quality assurance and safety tests.
- Select a toothpaste that contains the fluoride. Fluoride is very helpful to repair the enamel damage that occur as a result of calculus bridge formation. some tarter control products also contain a substance called triclosan that fights against bacteria in plaque.
- Dental floss is another method that is used to clean the teeth properly and kept the plaque out of the oral cavity. It does not require the services of professionals and can be performed by the individual at home.
- Be careful about your food and always take a healthy diet. When a starchy and sugar-rich food enters into the mouth, the bacteria present inside release certain harmful acids in response to it. Therefore limit the number of carbohydrates in the daily diet plans.
- After every meal cleans the teeth properly and drinks plenty of water.
- Avoid cigarette smoking. studies have shown that individuals who are smokers or using tobacco are more susceptible to tartar formation as compared to non-smokers.
- Consume vitamin C rich food such as strawberries and tomatoes. Daily intake is of this food very beneficial for dental health as it removes bacteria from the oral cavity.
- Visit your dentist every 6 months in order to ensure oral hygiene.
Dental instruments used for the examination and removal of calculus
Several days after the formation of calculus it becomes very hard, making it difficult to remove with floss or brushing. Dental professionals used various types of specially designed hand instruments to remove the calculus or plaque that has been deposited on the surface of teeth.
These instruments include
- Dental explorer and probes
- Dental mirror
- Suction pump
Dental explorer and probes
Dental explore is used by the dentist for the examination of cavities, plaque and fractures.it is about the size of the pen and has a tip on one or both sides.
A periodontal probe is another interment used to measure the size of the pocket (sulcus) present between teeth and gum. it is marked in millimeter. A healthy sulcus has a depth of 3mm or less and it does not undergo bleeding. but in the case of calculus, these spaces or pockets will be deeper than 3mm. These probes are available in various shapes.
Mirrors are used by the dentist to look inside the parts of the oral cavity that are very difficult to see. A small circular mirror is present on the end of the handle. The size of the mirror is small enough to be easily fit inside the oral cavity. Tarter formed on the back of teeth can be easily seen by the mirror. These mirrors allow the examination of teeth from various angles. its size is the same as that of explorers and probes.
A dental scaler is about the same size as that of probe, explorer, and mirror. scaler has a hook-like fixture on its ends. scaler is specially used to scrape off the tartar or calculus above the gumline that has become hard enough not to be removed with the floss or brushing.
Suction pumps are commonly used during a dental procedure to remove the excess amount of water, tarter and dental filling .after the polishing of teeth, a large amount of paste is also removed with the help of a suction pump.
Curettes are highly versatile instruments to remove the tarter from the surface of teeth. These instruments are equally effective in both types of calculus i.e Supragingival and Subgingival calculus. Curettes have rounded back when used sub-gingivally in order to reduce the trauma to the tissues.
Home remedies for the removal of tartar
Certain types of home remedies are also used to get rid of tarter. some of which are as follows
- Baking soda
- Aloe vera gel and glycerine
- Apple cider vinegar
Baking soda or sodium bicarbonate is alkaline in nature and has good scrubbing activity. It decreases the deposition of plaque on the surface of teeth.it is widely used at home to remove the tarter deposition and teeth whitening agent.
There are several ways to use baking soda for the removal of tarter in combination with other ingredients such as
- Lemon juice
- Hydrogen peroxide
Baking soda and water
Half a teaspoon of baking soda is mixed with few drops of water to form a paste. this paste is applied to teeth by using a brush or your finger. Leave it on the teeth for approximately 2 minutes then rinse with water.
Baking soda and toothpaste
Baking soda is also used in combination with toothpaste. various toothpaste is available in the market that contains baking soda as an ingredient.
Baking soda and Hydrogen Peroxide
This combination is also used to remove tartar deposition. A teaspoon of baking soda and half teaspoon of hydrogen peroxide is mixed to form a paste. This paste is applied to teeth for one or two minutes and then rinse with water.
Baking soda and lemon juice
Citric acid is present in lemon which is a very effective bleaching agent. For the removal of calculus about a half teaspoon of lemon juice is mixed with a half teaspoon of baking soda. Apply this mixture to your teeth by using a toothbrush for one minute then rinse it out with water. However, this mixture should not be used frequently because the acidic nature of lemon juice will lead to the demineralization of teeth.
Aloe Vera gel and Glycerine
Aloe Vera has antioxidant properties and removes any free radical deposited on the surface of teeth. It improves the healing of gums and teeth.
one part of aloe Vera gel is mixed with four parts of Glycerine to form a paste. scrub this paste on your teeth and finally rinse with water. this mixture should be used once a day until plaque starts to go away.
Apple cider vinegar
Apple cider vinegar is mixed with water in a proportion of 1:3 to form a whitening rinse. This rinse is mixed with your routine toothpaste and applied on teeth with a toothbrush.
Both leaves and fruits of guava have excellent anti-plaque and anti-tarter activity. Guava leaves should be chewed daily and spit it out. It not only reduces the risk of tarter deposition but also reduces gum swelling. Unripe guava is also used for this purpose.