Diabetes is a mixture of various complications usually resulting in the incident of high blood glucose level and inability to tolerate glucose due to inadequate insulin secretion, defect in insulin activity.
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These problems are the result of imbalance monitoring of storage and accumulation of energy-yielding fuels that includes anabolism and catabolism of fats, protein, and starch. It arises due to faulty insulin release and its action (Piero et al., 2014).
Types of Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus has several types but two main types are:
- Type1 diabetes and;
- Type2 diabetes
On the basis of diagnosis, type1 exist in patients with little or no insulin excretion ability. Such a patient needs insulin from an exogenous source for survival.
The widespread type of diabetes is type2 diabetes. It is distinguished by the ailment of decreased insulin release and increase cellular resistance to insulin. Usually, type2 diabetes affects people aged above 40 years. It is related to reduced physical activity, increased body weight and heredity (Bastaki, 2005).
Prevalence of Diabetes
In the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) report 2013, about 382 million adults are affected with diabetes all around the world. The prevalence rate for diabetes mellitus varies between 3 countries due to differences in risk factors i.e. birth weight, obesity, ethnicity, age, westernization, family history with diabetes and socioeconomic status (Dagenais et al., 2016).
The occurrence of Type1 diabetes mellitus can vary for the same as well as different populations depending upon the geographical area. The reasons for these differences are due to the involvement of different hereditary and environmental factors that influence the etiology of
Type 1 Diabetes
It is expected that approximately 50% of Type1 diabetes cases are identified after the age of 15 years. From 1990-1999 Type1 diabetes prevalence increased by 2.8% at the global level. At the continent level, there was a significant increase in Type1 diabetes (Asia 4%, North America 5.3%, Europe 3.2%) while 3.6% reduction was seen in West India and Central America (Green, 2001).
85-90% of diabetes cases in high socioeconomic countries are type2 diabetes resulting in greater impact in developing nations and commonly arise in obese and overweight individuals (Piero et al., 2014).
At the international level, the rise in diabetes incidence is evaluated generally considering the increase of Type2 diabetes prevalence. Several studies showed that areas with high diabetes percentages have a lower rate of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).
For the year 2011, the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) varies from 18.4% in Malaysia and 1.3% in Saudi Arabia. In Europe, in the year 2011 prevalence was 5.4% in Sweden, Romania 9.8%, Poland 16.6% while Bulgaria 1.7% (Vlad and Popa, 2012).
Range/Level of Blood Glucose
The individual is considered diabetic when blood glucose in fasting condition is equivalent to or above 126mg/dl or oral glucose tolerance test is above 200mg/dl (Ismaiel et al., 2016).
- High Carbohydrates and fat diet
- High blood triglyceride levels
- High blood pressure
- Being overweight or obesity
- High intake of alcohol
- Sedentary lifestyle
- Gestational diabetes
- Dehydration or dry mouth
- Unexplained weight loss
- More hunger
- More thirst
- Frequent urination
- Blurred vision
- Tingling feet and hands
- Swollen, red, tender gums
- Loss of consciousness
- Infections or sores that do not heal
- Monitor your blood glucose daily
- Took your medicine prescribed by the doctor accordingly
- Eat complex carbohydrates and avoid refined carbs
- Avoid the consumption of sugar-containing foods and sweets
- Be physically active and do 10-15 minutes exercise daily